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History[ edit ] While a literature of reform had already appeared by the midth century, the kind of reporting that would come to be called "muckraking" began to appear around Changes in journalism prior to [ edit ] Nellie Bly The muckrakers would become known for their investigative journalism, evolving from the eras of "personal journalism"—a term historians Emery and Emery used in The Press and America 6th ed.
One of the biggest urban scandals of the post-Civil War era was the corruption and bribery case of Tammany boss William M. Tweed in that was uncovered by newspapers. In his first muckraking article "Tweed Days in St.
Louis," Lincoln Steffens exposed the grafta system of political corruption, that was ingrained in St.
Note that in yellow journalism, the idea was to stir up the public with sensationalism, and thus sell more papers. If, in the process, a social wrong was exposed that the average man could get indignant about, that was fine, but it was not the intent to correct social wrongs as it was with true investigative journalists and muckrakers.
Julius ChambersNew York Tribunecould be considered to be the original muckraker. His intent was to obtain information about alleged abuse of inmates. When articles and accounts of the experience were published in the Tribune, it led to the release of twelve patients who were not mentally ill, a reorganization of the staff and administration of the institution and, eventually, to a change in the lunacy laws.
From this time onward, Chambers was frequently invited to speak on the rights of the mentally ill and the need for proper facilities for their accommodation, care and treatment.
Wells — — an author of a series of articles concerning Jim Crow laws and the Chesapeake and Ohio Railroad inand co-owned the newspaper The Free Speech in Memphis in which she began an anti-lynching campaign.
Flower - author of articles in The Arena from through advocating for prison reform and prohibition of alcohol. The muckrakers appeared at a moment when journalism was undergoing changes in style and practice.
Muckraking publishers like Samuel S. McClurealso emphasized factual reporting,  but he also wanted what historian Michael Schudson had identified as one of the preferred qualities of journalism at the time, namely, the mixture of "reliability and sparkle" to interest a mass audience.
While the muckrakers continued the investigative exposures and sensational traditions of yellow journalism, they wrote to change society.
Their work reached a mass audience as circulation figures of the magazines rose on account of visibility and public interest. Magazines were the leading outlets for muckraking journalism. Tarbell or the seasoned journalist and editor Lincoln Steffens. Welliverand their names adorned the front covers.
GlavisWill IrwinJ. HamptonJohn L. To do so, he elevated his press secretary to cabinet status and initiated press conferences. The muckraking journalists who emerged aroundlike Lincoln Steffens, were not as easy for Roosevelt to manage as the objective journalists, and the President gave Steffens access to the White House and interviews to steer stories his way.
When journalists went after different topics, he complained about their wallowing in the mud. There are, in the body politic, economic and social, many and grave evils, and there is urgent necessity for the sternest war upon them.
There should be relentless exposure of and attack upon every evil man whether politician or business man, every evil practice, whether in politics, in business, or in social life. I hail as a benefactor every writer or speaker, every man who, on the platform, or in book, magazine, or newspaper, with merciless severity makes such attack, provided always that he in his turn remembers that the attack is of use only if it is absolutely truthful.
They felt betrayed that Roosevelt would coin them with such a term after they had helped him with his election. Muckraker David Graham Philips believed that the tag of muckraker brought about the end of the movement as it was easier to group and attack the journalists.
Early 20th century muckraking[ edit ] Early Writers of the Muckraking Tradition.Read the essential details about the author Upton Sinclair that includes images, quotations and the main facts of his life.
Upton Sinclair was born in Baltimore on 20th September, His alcoholic father moved the family to New York City in Although his own family were extremely poor, he spent periods of time living with his wealthy grandparents. It looks like you've lost connection to our server.
Please check your internet connection or reload this page. Upton Sinclair Biography Upton Sinclair was a Pulitzer Prize winning author and a social reformer. This biography of Upton Sinclair provides detailed information about his childhood, life, achievements, works & Place Of Birth: Baltimore, Maryland.
Upton Beall Sinclair was born on September 20, , in Baltimore, Maryland. His father was an alcoholic and his mother was a teetotaler. His father was an alcoholic and his mother was a teetotaler. When Upton was 10, his father moved them to New York City.
Early life and education Upton Beale Sinclair Jr. was born in Baltimore, Maryland, on September 20, He was the only child of Upton Beall Sinclair and Priscilla yunusemremert.com: Nov 25, Sinclair was born in Baltimore, Maryland, to Upton Beall Sinclair Sr.
and Priscilla Harden Sinclair. His father was a liquor salesman whose alcoholism shadowed his son's childhood. Priscilla Harden Sinclair was a strict Episcopalian who disliked alcohol, tea, and yunusemremert.com: Upton Beall Sinclair Jr., September 20, , Baltimore, Maryland.