References and Further Reading 1. Introduction Historically, the just war tradition--a set of mutually agreed rules of combat—may be said to commonly evolve between two culturally similar enemies.
Z Absorption a In physiology: The loss of intensity of the radiation e. Action Potential A spontaneous self-propagating change in membrane potential that travels as a 'wave' along electrically excitable cell membranes found in neurons and muscle cells.
Action potentials are triggered when the cell's membrane potential depolarizes i. The potassium efflux brings the membrane potential below the threshold and thus to rest. A new action potential can only be triggered with a new stimulus which comes from neurotransmitter activated ion channels at locations of synaptic interaction between neurons or neurons and muscle cells.
Adaptation A process in biological evolution as the result of natural selection where a species becomes better adjusted to the living conditions The life course theory its environment temperature, food sources, and predators.
In adaptation, individuals that have the most offspring contribute more of their genetic makeup to the next generation. Beneficial traits are favored in this editing process and the next generation of a species or population for instance a smaller geographical subset of a species is better adapted to new environmental conditions that caused certain individuals to have fewer offspring.
Thus genes that are not optimal for certain conditions will become rarer as a result. Adaptation, as evolution in general, is studied at the level of a population of interbreeding individuals.
Adult Stem Cell A specialized cell that is needed for growth, wound healing and tissue regeneration. Adult stem cells are found in all tissues and organs of animals and plants. Allele The genetic variant of a gene. A gene can be found in different variants in a population, even in the same individual.
Alleles are responsible for the different traits of certain characteristics, such as eye and hair color in animals, and flower and seed color in plants.
Alleles are also responsible for genetic diseases. Amino Acid Building block of proteins and enzymes. Dietary proteins need to be broken into their amino acid components before they can be used by the body. Note that there are 20 amino acids found in proteins. Many nutritional lists describe only 18 occluding glutamine and asparagine.
Their values are included in those reported for the acidic forms glutamate and aspartate. Anabolism Biosynthesis of molecules in cells and part of metabolism. Antioxidant A molecule that protects cells from oxidative damage of oxygen and free radical molecules that are chemically unstable and cause random reactions damaging proteins, nucleic acids, and cell membranes.
Examples of dietary antioxidants are vitamins C, E, and K, and diverse plant products such as lycopene, a nutraceutical found in tomatoes.
Aperiodic Refers to the lack of symmetry in molecular structures or functions. An important insight into the mechanism of biological structures is their aperiodic composition and distribution of atoms causing the extraordinary complexity of cells.
Archaea A prokaryotic form of life that forms a domain in the tree of life.
There are three domains: Bacteria are also prokaryotic organisms.Fideisms Judaism is the Semitic monotheistic fideist religion based on the Old Testament's ( BCE) rules for the worship of Yahweh by his chosen people, the children of Abraham's son Isaac (c BCE)..
Zoroastrianism is the Persian monotheistic fideist religion founded by Zarathustra (cc BCE) and which teaches that good must be chosen over evil in order to achieve salvation.
In this way, the life course perspective emphasizes the ways in which transitions, pathways, and trajectories are socially organized. Moreover, transitions typically result in a change in status, social identity, and role involvement.
Welcome to Bright Red Publishing, Scotland’s leading independent educational publisher and home of top Study Guides and Course Books for Scottish Qualifications Authority exams! Animism. According to the animistic theory, the idea of the human soul was first suggested by the contrast between the mental representations experienced while .
About this course: What are the determinants of a happy and fulfilling life?This is surely one of life’s biggest questions, and a question that has interested many of our ancestors. Buddha famously gave up his kingdom in search of happiness. The Theory of Everything is the story of the most brilliant and celebrated physicist of our time, Stephen Hawking, and Jane Wilde the arts student he fell in love with whilst studying at Cambridge in the s.